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    玩具企業深陷困局,從奧飛、群興玩具等看轉型之路究竟該怎么走?

    行行 2019-06-12 09:58 Tags: 閱讀數: 評論:0

    導讀:國內的玩具市場需求很大,而且近幾年又有肉眼可見的增量。但據了解,目前國內的玩具上市企業大多數都處在水深火熱之中,在依托如此大的市場和本土作戰的優勢面前,為什么國內的玩具制造商遲遲沒有交出令人滿意的成績單?

    國內玩具企業起步較晚,而且在技術尚不成熟的階段,以大規模的代工廠、模具化生產的方式進入市場,在這樣開發設計的能力受到限制的情況下,國內玩具廠商的發展也受到了限制。而全球玩具行業正遭受電子化游戲的沖擊,在雙重壓力的情況下,即使是國內領頭的玩具企業的現狀也不容樂觀。

    從奧飛娛樂看IP

    如今想要在轉型泛娛樂產業后立足,就一定繞不開IP,消費者們對于IP的認可決定了這一領域的溢價能力,也就能促成更多的營收。其實在15年前左右,奧飛娛樂就擁有了國內極具影響力的IP–奧迪雙鉆。

    盡管那時消費者們的產權意識和消費能力與如今相比相差太多,但是在孩子們的心中,奧迪雙鉆和四驅車是互為代名詞的,彼時四驅車的火爆程度完全可以和如今的皮卡丘們媲美。不過這樣的IP沒有長久的持續下去,奧飛娛樂將成功的關鍵歸結為了模式的打造,而不是IP的變現。于是我們看到的是基于《四驅兄弟》+四驅車后的《火力少年王》+悠悠球等這樣的模式復刻。自此“奧迪雙鉆,我的伙伴”所代表的價值再也沒有上漲,可以說奧飛娛樂有一種自毀前程的感覺。

    在玩具產業的戰略失誤讓奧飛在面臨2008年金融危機的時候,被迫向動漫行業轉型,這也成為了這家企業能一直穩定基業的原因。盡管玩具和動漫在形式上有很大的聯系,但是從本質上看,奧飛在2009年想要重啟奧迪雙鉆的輝煌還是沒有成功。

    以此來看,國內大多數玩具廠商成型較晚或者沒能在早起培養屬于自己的IP系統,在缺乏時間沉淀的情況下,IP的確很難取得消費者的認可。而外來IP高額的授權費用是廠商們很難消化掉的,在這樣的情況下,很多以玩具只做為初心的企業就只能選擇轉型。

    從群興玩具看轉型

    提到轉型,以兒童玩具出生的群興玩具可以說是“大動作頻繁,小動作不斷”。這家上市公司的現狀似乎也不太好,在過去的兩年中,群興玩具不斷地被爆出“公司內部只有17名員工”、“變賣資產保殼”一系列負面的消息。

    在群興玩具剛剛上市的時候,基于對市場的判斷,公司將發展的戰略方向定在了經營效率上,管理者認為通過提升效率來彌補利潤的虧損是自保之策。但實際上從后續的市場發展來看,這樣的定位是完全錯誤的。

    這也就決定了群興玩具能夠一直保持著還不錯的股價,并不得益于自己的玩具“基業”。自2014年至今,群興玩具的“重大決策”可謂是接連不斷。2014年想要涉足互聯網行業收購星創,試圖以手游帶動經濟發展;2015年希望收購三洲核能,重組業務結構;2017年試圖進軍新能源產業,趕超主流趨勢;2018年至今,假借大數據之勢響應國家科技創新政策。但無一例外都沒有理想的結果。縱觀群興玩具的決策和行動方向,可以說完美契合了中國這幾年的主流大方向,站在風口上也許總會是對的,但群興說到底也應該是一家玩具公司。

    頻繁的業務擴展并沒有為企業帶來長足的發展,反而讓公司的內部架構越來越混亂。在玩具企業領域內,群興也算得上提供了一個反例了。

    從美盛文化看未來

    玩具公司轉型在某種意義上是迫不得已的下策,美盛文化這家國內第二家上市的玩具公司在大環境下也面臨著不斷地調整。以玩具加工制造作為自己的業務主體本身就具有很大的局限性,在信息全球化的時代里,想要以玩具形象來吸引消費者、達成購買就必須手握IP授權所以收購IP,向衍生品和泛娛樂方向發展已經成為了必然,至于為什么這樣的模式下出不了全球性的玩具公司其實也就很好理解了,國內玩具公司的IP持有量太少,普及程度相對較小,沒辦法在短時間內形成規模效應。

    所以我們看到即使美盛文化收購了同道大叔、控股JAKKS Pacific,在策略方向上暫時正確,可依舊無法形成有力的競爭格局。這樣看來,國內的玩具企業想要挑戰海外品牌,并不是短時間內可以做到的。

    以產業現狀來看,在國內這篇土壤中孕育出獨立的IP或者品牌都是不容易實現的,轉型縱然有一定的發展前景,保持某一個領域的深耕也能有更好的機會,但是對于企業來說,轉型只是一種嘗試和選擇,千萬不要矯枉過正。

    文章來源:玩具前沿

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